The Georgian language is a member of the Ibero-Caucasian (Kartvelian-Caucasian) family of languages, and its alphabet ანბანი is one of the few unique alphabets in the world.

Historically, the Georgian language was written in three scripts. Asomtavruli – ႠႱႭႫႧႠႥႰႳႪႨ, Khutsuri – ⴌⴓⴑⴞⴓⴐⴈ, and last Mkhedruli – მხედრული with twenty-eight consonants and five vowels, which is the script commonly used at present in printing and handwriting. The Georgian literary tradition dates back to the 5th century.

In 1864 Friedrich Müller proposed a theory that the Georgian language (Kartvelian-Caucasian languages) was relict of an independent prehistoric group of languages. Many linguists share this opinion. The Georgian language does not relate to other known language families. The term Caucasian languages (Kartvelian, Abkhazian-Adigheian, and Nakho-Daghestanian languages) is a linguist term and should not be mistaken for the term languages of the Caucasus that includes all languages of the region which belong to other language groups.

Since ancient times there were many attempts to place the Georgian language within the familiar language families. Herodotus (5th century BC) tried to relate the Georgian language to the Egyptian language. Others saw its connection with Phoenician or Greek. In the 19th century, scientists sought its roots among the Indo-European languages. This theory was supported by European scientists such as Marie-Félicité Brosset, Franz Bopp, but there were many more who disagreed.

Some sought linguistic proof that Georgian was related to the languages of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia: Hattic, Urartian, Hurrian, Elamian, Sumerian, Pelasgian. Although extinct today, once these languages represented one Mediterranean culture. The only language outside of the Caucasus region that possibly can have a similar origin to Georgian is the Basque language – Euskara.

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