Briefly About Punctuation in the Georgian Language

Period “.” წერტილი

a.            After finishing every single sentence, if these sentences are completed syntactically. Example: ცივა. მომწონს ხატვა. ყოველ დღე მივდივარ სამსახურში.

b.            To shorten words. Example: ქ. თბილისი (ქალაქი); მდ. მტკვარი (მდინარე).

c.             To create numbered or bulleted list.

Comma “,” მძიმე

a.            When compound coordinate and compound subordinate clauses present in the sentence. Example: (მიმართებითი და დამოკიდებული)

b.            When we list similar parts of the sentence.  

c.             When we have parenthetic words/clauses, appendix, vocative comma, yes-no particles,

d.            When separating the reference list entries.

Semicolon “;” წერტილ-მძიმე

a.            When two sentences are syntactically independent, but they are tightly connected through their content.

b.            When numbered and bulleted lists are connected through their content. Example:

Question mark “?” კითხვითი ნიშანი

a.            At the end of the interrogative sentence.

Exclamation mark “!” ძახილის ნიშანი

a.            At the end of the exclamatory sentence.

b.            After vocative.

Ellipsis “…” მრავალწერტილი

a.            At the end of unfinished sentences.

b.            At the end of lists to represent et cetera.

c.             Instead of omitted word, phrase, or line at the beginning and end of a quoted passage.

Interrobang “?!” კითხვა-ძახილის ნიშანი

a.            After an exclamatory interrogative sentence.  

Colon “:” ორწერტილი

a.            Before quotation.

b.            To introduce a list of items.

c.             Between independent clauses when the second explains or illustrates the first.

Hyphen “-“ დეფისი

a.            To produce compound words. Example: ერთ-ერთი, რძალ-დედამთილი.

b.            To translate foreign words that have two independent words in the original language. Example: ნიუ-იორკი.

c.             Before particles “მეთქი“, „თქო“.

d.            With numerals after prefixes and before suffixes. Example: მე-4, დავით IV-მ.

e.            To divide words at the end of a line when the word cannot fit on the remainder of the line.

Dash “—” ტირე

a.            To substitute a part of the first sentence in the compound sentence. Example: ღიმილი ჯადოსნური ჰქონდა, სიტყვა-პასუხი – ტკბილი…

b.            Instead of commas to highlight parenthetic words and clauses.

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